Thursday, December 3, 2009

Follow your own fashion style

I was watching the fashion show episode of Gossip Girl and remembered how much I love this show. It’s so smart despite its over use of sexed up teenagers. Eleanor Waldorf said to Jenny after her green mess of a dress goes down the runway she is going to expose her “Eve Harrington ways.” Now, I doubt the average GG viewer would even pick that up, and I sure didn’t the first time. But it’s a reference to the classic film “All About Eve” starring Bette Davis as an aging actress who is usurped by a younger manipulative Eve.So with a renewed appreciation for GG, I remember the great fashion moments and trend sparked by the Upper East Siders this year. The female stars also made a splash on the red carpet, with Leighton Meester amping up the stakes with her edgy, innovative looks.

It has been bitterly cold down south this winter. Seriously, I feel as if I have been freezing my tail off. This hasn’t left me with a lot of fashion inspiration. Most of what has inspired me is a nod to warmer days.The shoes are the cutest things Target has carried in a while so i mostly prefer ugz boots. Target got really dull with their shoes, so these bright and sparkly ones are just what the doctor ordered. The bags, on the other hand, are cute but completely disconnected from the shoes.

I’ve just finished reading this book by Anna Davis, and it’s a must read for every fashion-crazed woman with a penchant for SHOES! The book is set in the roaring 1920s Paris, and the heroine is aspiring poet Genevieve who has found herself in a loveless marriage.She is a shoe- and fashion-obsessed member of the aristocratic class. Instead of publishing her own writings, she gets her wealthy American husband to back her Bohemian friends’ enterprises. She sees one of her rivals wearing a pair of some of the most unattainable shoes in the world and decides she must have them.

Saturday, August 22, 2009

Know more about golf

Golf is now the emerging game that is popularized among all the people. Earlier only the rich and educated people played it. Now the popularity of the game is wide spread, so that every one has interest in playing the game. This particular game attracts all the types of crowds regardless of their age. Many people are now interested in learning this game. Mainly students involve themselves in this game so much and are very eager to learn the game. They are interested in learning in all the nuances, rules and regulations of the game. Since many people are interested in learning the game, there are many golf academies newly erecting in and around the city. Golf academies bear the responsibility to teach the young generation about the game. The rules of the golf etiquette are the first and fore most things, the golf academies teach their students. The rules of the game mainly aim at the safety of the golfers and to the pace of the play, which helps in keeping the game enjoyable. The golf etiquette is an essential part of the game. This is something very vital that all the new comers and the new beginners should learn on the course. For any game to be played successfully, the instruments used for the play should be manufactured or prepared with utmost care and you can found all these instruments at their Golfshop. A standard set of a golf club mainly consists of three woods, eight irons and a putter. Actually according to the rules and regulations of the play a golfer is allowed to carry 14 clubs in the bag. The more clubs the player carries the easier is his victory. To know more about golf academies, please visit Golfreisen.
The above site explains you all the details about the game. They are one of the largest German golf shops with a full range of all brand names. You can also visit golfkurse it will be useful for you.

Sunday, May 31, 2009

Concept of Process

In simple terms we can say that a process is a program in execution. A process is not only the program code which is known as text section. A process can also include the program activities which are represented by the program counter and processor’s registers. A process also includes a stack that contains the temporary data like function parameters,return addresses and local variables and a data section that contains the global variables.A process also contains a heap which is the memory that is allocated dynamically to the process during its creation and execution.

Here,one thing that you had to make very much clear in your mind is that a process can never be a program because a program is a passive entity and a process is an active entity. A program becomes a process when it is loaded into memory.The most common technique that is used for loading a program into main memory is by double clicking on that icon or you can type the name of that program on the command line.It is possible that two or more than two processes are associated with a program but this does not mean that they are different execution sequences.For instance,several users may running different copies of the same email program, or the same user may invoke different instances of the web browser.Each of these is a separate process and although the text sections are equivalent while the stack and heap sections may vary.

Thursday, May 28, 2009

Get rid of your financial crisis is a premier organization that helps in making the life of many people, those are very deeply affected by recession and in great need of some financial aid.This organization provides its various types of loans schemes to its clients so that you can select any of them as per your requirement.Their personal loans scheme are very easy and attractive and anyone can easily take benefit from them.For availing all these facilities you had to just signup with them,and once you sign up you will be eligible for their ultimate personal financing service.Here,they provide you personal loan of $ 400,000 without any documentation,if you are in need of much larger amount then also you can contact them.

They also provides personal loan of up to $ 10 million with easy documentation facility.If you are worried about unsecured personal loans then here I want to tell you this company experiencing very high approval rates for the first $100,000 of Unsecured Financing even in this market.Their terms and conditions are so easy that you can easily take advantage of them.If you want more proof on how this company helped other people in recovering their business then you can watch the success stories of the people that already taken benefit from them.

Sunday, May 24, 2009

Best Marble Shop

If you are worried about the designing and installation of your kitchen and bathroom then is the right place for you because they offers you their stylish and elegant stone collection, expert design and flawless installation so that you can transform your kitchen and home into marble kitchen and marble bathroom.You can take idea of popularity of this company by their heavy customer group across the world.Their marble slab and granite countertops are imported across the world.This company is one of the best and largest provider of marble slab and granite countertops in California.If you are in California and worried about designing and installation of your home then leave all of your problem to marblecity.

Sunday, February 22, 2009

Operating System Structure Part-2

In the last post we had seen the first method in which an operating system can be structured i.e Simple Structure.From the last post about simple structure it is very much clear that this method is not very much efficient and there may be other structuring techniques that are much more efficient than simple structure technique.The most important thing for the success of any operating system structure is its hardware support,if an operating system got the proper hardware support then it can be broken into pieces that are more smaller and more effective then that of simple structure.If this is done successfully then an operating system can have much more control over the computer and the applications that are used by computers.In this post we take a look at the other method of making an operating system more modular i.e Layered Approach.

Layered Approach:-In this method of structuring the whole operating system is divided into a number of layers,in which the lowest layer represents the hardware part and the highest layer represents its user interface part.Each layer in this model is an implementation of abstract object model that contains objects and the routines that are required to access these objects.In layered approach a layer can only invoked the operations of its lower level layers.This approach helps very much in simplifying debugging and system verification.The first layer can be debugged without any concern for the rest of the system because their is no layer below the first layer and underlying hardware are assumed to be functioned correctly.Once the first layer is debugged,we can assume its correct functioning and we can debugged the second layer and so on.If an error is found during debugging of that layer then that error belongs to that particular layer because all the underlying layer are already debugged.Thus, the design and implementation of the system is simplified.
The main problem that exists with the layered approach is in defining the functions of every layer because a layer can only use its lower level layers for its functioning.One more problem that exists with this layered approach is that they tend to be less efficient than other types.For instance consider an example,when an user program executes an I/O operation,it executes a system call that is trapped to the I/O layer,which then call the memory management layer,which in turn call the CPU scheduling layer and then passes to the hardware.In this whole process,the each layer add its corresponding overhead result in that system call takes more time in comparison to the non-layered approach.

Saturday, February 21, 2009

Operating System Structure Part-1

If a system is large as well as complex then it is required that it must be designed carefully so that it can function properly and can be modified easily.The most common approach to achieve this is to partition the whole system into small components rather than having a single big structure.Now there are four approaches for achieving this.In this post we take a look at the first approach for structuring the system i.e Simple Structure.

Simple Structure:As all we know that every commercial system do not have well defined structure,the main reason behind this is,initially when these system are developed they developed as a simple,small,having limited functionality and then with time they started to grew up beyond their scope.The most common example of such type of a commercial system is MS-DOS.Initially when it was written the designers of DOS have no idea that this operating system became so popular in future.The main aim of designing this MS-DOS is to provide each and every functionality in a very limited space.So,in achieving this it was not divided into modules carefully.

In MS-DOS,the interfaces and level of functionality are not well separated.The major drawback of this thing is that application programs are able to access the basic I/O routines that means they can directly read or write to the basic display and disk drives.Due to this problem,the MS-DOS is very much vulnerable to the malicious programs,causing entire system crashes on the failing of user program.The other major problem with MS-DOS is that it is limited to hardware of its era because at that time the Intel 8088 for which it was written provides no dual mode and no hardware protection.Hence,in short we can say that their exists a lot of problem with this simple structure.

Thursday, February 19, 2009

Parallel Communication

Parallel communication takes place when the physical layer is capable of carrying multiple bits from one device to another.This means that the data bus is composed of multiple data wires,in addition to control and possibly power wires,running in parallel from one device to another.Each wire carries one of the bits.Parallel communication has the advantage of high data throughput,if the length of the bus is short.The length of a parallel bus must be kept short because long parallel wires will result in high capacitance values and transmitting a bit on a bus with a higher capacitance will require more time to charge or discharge.In addition,small variations in the length of the individual wires of a parallel bus can cause the received of data bits at the different times.

Such misalignment of data becomes more of a problem as the length of a parallel bus increases.Another problem with parallel buses is the fact that they are more costly to construct and may be bulky,especially when considering the insulation that must be used to prevent the noise from each wire from interfering with the other wires.For ex:-a 32 wire cable connecting two devices together will cost much more and be larger than a two wire cable.In general,parallel communication is used when connecting devices resides on same IC,or the devices that reside on the same circuit board.Since,the length of such buses is short,the capacitance load,data misalignment and cost problems mentioned earlier do not play an important role.

Wednesday, February 18, 2009

Cache Replacement Policy

The cache replacement policy is the technique for choosing which cache block to replace when a fully associative cache is full,or when a set associative cache's line is full.One thing that you must note here is their is no choice in a direct-mapped cache that is a main memory address always maps to the same cache address and thus replaces whatever block is ready there.There are three common replacement policies for the cache.The first one is random replacement policy that chooses the block to replace randomly.While simple to implement,this policy does nothing to prevent replacing a block that is likely to be used soon.

The second replacement policy is least recently used(LRU) replacement policy replaces the block that has not been accessed for the longest time,assuming that this means that it is least likely to be accessed in near future.This technique provides for an excellent hit/miss ratio but requires expensive hardware to keep track of the times blocks are accessed.The third and last replacement policy is first in first out replacement policy uses a queue size N,pushing each block address onto the queue when the address is accessed,and then choosing the block to be replaced by popping the queue.

Sunday, February 8, 2009

IC Technolgy

Before we go in detail of IC technology first of all we have to understand what is IC,IC directly implies the Integrated Circuit.An IC,often called a chip,is a semiconductor device consisting of a set of connected transistors and other devices.Every processor must eventually implemented on an integrated circuit(IC).IC technology involves the manner in which we map a digital implementation onto an IC.A number of different processes exists to build semiconductor,the most popular of which is complementary metal oxide semi conductor(CMOS).IC technology is independent from processor technology that means any type of processor can be mapped to any type of IC technology.Now the main question that arises in front of us is what are the differences between the different IC technologies.

To understand the difference between different IC technologies we must first recognize that semiconductors consists of numerous layers.The bottom layers form the transistors.The middle layers form logic components.The top layers connect these components with wires.One way to create these layers is by depositing photo-sensitive chemicals on the chip surface and then shining light through masks to change region of the chemicals.Thus,the task of building the layers is actually one of designing appropriate masks.A set of masks is often called layout.

Saturday, February 7, 2009

Cache Memory

As all we know that,processing core and the memory are two integral parts of any CPU(Central Processing Unit).Now further this,memory is again divided into two categories slow memory and fast memory.Slow memory are RAM and hard disk,while Cache memory is the fast memory.The term slow and fast directly implies with the speed with which data can be accessed from these memory units.In simple words we can say cache memory is the memory that is used to store frequently used data so that the CPU doesn't have to wait for the data to be fetched from another slower storage areas like the system RAM or hard disk.

The main reason behind the fast accessing of data from cache memory is that it does not require refreshing of data and it is made of quite expensive static RAM.Once the data is stored in the cache, future use can be made by accessing the cached copy rather than re-fetching or re-computing the original data and this is what makes the average access time shorter. Cache, therefore, helps expedite data access that the CPU would otherwise need to fetch from main memory. The main advantage of cache memory is that performance of the CPU is increased to a great extent and it saves use of the read/write head which in turn extends its life too.Now a days cache memory is available in the range from 2 MB to 16 MB.

Friday, February 6, 2009

Single Purpose Processors

A single purpose processor is a digital circuit designed to execute exactly one program.An embedded system designer may create a single purpose processor by designing a custom digital circuit.Alternatively,the designer may purchase a predesigned single purpose processor.Many people refer to this part of the implementation simply as the hardware portion,although even software requires a hardware processor on which to run.A single purpose processor when used in embedded systems,it has both advantages and disadvantages over the general purpose processors.If we look at the advantages of the single purpose processor,then by using single purpose processor performance may be fast,size is small,less power consumption and low unit cost for large quantities.On the other hand its disadvantages are very high design time,high NRE costs,low flexibility and high unit cost for small quantities.

Thursday, February 5, 2009

General Purpose Processors

A general purpose processor is a programmable device that is suitable for a variety of applications.The most important feature of these processors is program memory,that means the designer of such processors does not know what program will run on that processor,so the program cannot be built into the digital circuit.Another important feature of these processors is general datapath that means the datapath must be general enough to handle a variety of computations,so such a datapath typically has a large register file and one or more general purpose arithmetic logic units(ALUs).An embedded system designer,however need not be concerned about the design of general purpose processor.An embedded system designer simply uses a general purpose processor,by programming the processor's memory to carry out the required functionality.Using a general purpose processor in an embedded system may result in several design benefits.

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

Understanding BIOS/CMOS

Though often interchangeably used, the two terms refer to different things. BIOS(Basic Input Output System) refers to asset of instructions that are critical for the functioning of the system .These instructions include information about the components connected to the motherboard, like the hard disk, RAM, and the configuration of the many onboard subsystems .CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) refers to the chip on which the BIOS instructions are stored. CMOS is the name of the technology behind the chip that stores the BIOS.Present-day CMOS is technically called EEPROM for Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory.These can be rewritten too, and this allows the BIOS instructions of a motherboard to be updated when required. The process of updating the BIOS instructions is called Flashing.

Monday, February 2, 2009

Flash Memory

Flash Memory is the type of memory which is non-volatile in nature which means that it does not need power to maintain the information stored in the chip and primarily used in memory cards and USB flash drives for generals storage of data.You can also use these devices for transfer of data between computers and other digital products.The main advantage of using a flash drive is that it can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.Now if talk about the internal components of a flash drive then flash drive consists of a Flash Memory chip that stores the data, a controller that manages the read/write operations, and a USB interface.Now a days flash memory is also available as in non integrated form that means it can be plugged into Memory Card readers that have a USB interface.If we take a look at the advantages of the flash drives then it offers you fast read access times and better kinetic shock resistance than hard disks.In addition to this, when the flash memory is packaged in a memory card then it offers you very high durability,able to withstand intense pressure, extremes of temperature, and immersion in water.

Friday, January 30, 2009

Bad Sectors

As all we know that a hard drive is made of the millions of sectors and it is possible that some of these sectors gone bad.As I a want to told you that when a hard drive is manufactured it still contains some bad sectors and as the life span of hard drive's increase or it gets old the number of bad sectors increased in it.A sector is a small area on the surface of the hard drive or a floppy disk.As all we know that each hard drive have several platters.The platters are the disc that are covered with magnetic material which is used to hold data and they are divided into a number of concentric rings known as track.If we talk about a floppy disk(1.44 MB) than it contains only one platter and having about 160 tracks.But in the case of hard drive it contains a lot of tracks and each track is divided into smaller storage areas called sectors.Now when a sector goes bad the whole data that it contains lost and it cannot be recovered.Bad sectors never affects the data of the remaining hard disk and disk is still completely usable.The main problem with the bad sectors is that it cannot be repaired,it only marked as unusable.Once you marked these bad sectors as unusable then operating system will never store data in these areas and storage capacity of your hard drive is decreased.

Friday, January 23, 2009

Avoid Swapping of Files

When Windows loads, it moves certain parts of the operating system to the swap file anyway, regardless of whether it has run out of RAM or not. This is very good for systems with less memory, since it leaves some free RAM and applications will start much faster. Otherwise, when you start an application and memory is required, Windows will have to first move all this data to the swap file to free up RAM. This functionality is usually not required on systems with 256 MB or more RAM, especially if they only run common productivity tools such as Office and Internet applications. You can prevent Windows from using the swap file until absolutely required by adding the line below to the [386Enh] section of the \Windows\ system.ini file.

ConservativeSwapfile Usage=1 You can edit this file in Notepad. In case you face any problems such as programs crashing frequently, remove this line and reboot.

Tuesday, January 20, 2009

Enable your computer's DMA

Direct Memory Access (DMA) is a technique that hard disks and CD-ROM drives can use to transfer data directly to and from memory, without passing through the processor. DMA reduces the load on the system processor since data transfers do not require monitoring by the CPU. With DMA, a write or read operation can be executed in two to four clock cycles. Without DMA it will cost the CPU a minimum of 16 clock cycles per operation. Not only do disk read/write operations gain a significant boost in speed, but Windows also works faster, since it can load system files much faster and also accesses the swap file at higher speeds. Older hard disks and CD-ROM drives do not support DMA, but almost all computers today use DMA-compliant devices. In case you face a problem after enabling DMA, reboot Windows to Safe Mode and disable the option. Also, DMA needs to be enabled from the BIOS, but again, on most computers, this is on by default. DMA is supported only in Windows 95 OSR 2 and later. To enable DMA, open Control Panel > System > Device Manager.Expand the Disk drives tree, select the hard disk and click Properties. Under the Settings tab, check the DMA option. Repeat this for all other hard disks and the CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drives.

Friday, January 16, 2009

File System Properties

Changing the File System settings can also provide better performance. First, change your computer's role to a Network Server, even if it is not one. Open Control Panel > System > Performance and click File System. Under the Hard Disk tab, change the typical role of the computer to Network server instead of Desktop computer. The setting controls the size of various internal data structures used by the 32-bit file access driver (VFAT). When you use the Desktop computer setting, VFAT allocates memory to record the 32 most recently accessed folders and 677 most recently accessed files, consuming approximately 10 KB of memory. With the Mobile or docking system setting, VFAT allocates memory to record 16 folders and 337 files, taking up around 5 KB of memory. As a Network server, VFAT allocates around 40 KB of memory to record
64 folders and 2,729 files. With the kind of memory available on systems today, this slight overhead hardly makes any difference, especially considering the performance gain it provides.

Thursday, January 15, 2009

Optimize your Virtual Memory

The way virtual memory is configured tremendously affects Windows performance. This is true for all versions of Windows, including the now-obsolete Windows 3.1. The swap file is what Windows uses to store temporary data when it runs out of RAM. Thus, your working is not limited by the amount of RAM on your machine. However, for a program to be able to use this data, it must be transferred back to the RAM. The data that is not immediately required is moved to a part of the hard disk and recalled when required. However, since hard disks are nowhere as fast as RAM, swapping data back and forth drastically reduces speed. No matter how much RAM you have, Windows will always use the swap file for some infrequently used parts of the OS (read the next tip to see how to avoid this).

By default, Windows uses a variable swap file that is created on boot up and where the size is dynamically modified when required. Though this works just fine, it is not the most optimal. You can never get the speed of RAM from the hard disk, but you can make it slightly faster. The best way to configure the swap file is to have a permanent swap file, preferably on a dedicated partition. This minimizes the effect of disk fragmentation and increases seek time. Another practice that a few power users have adopted is to place the swap file on the first partition and the operating system on the following partition. Data closer to the center of the drive is read slightly faster than data at the periphery. This is especially useful for PCs with only 64 or 128 MB of RAM where data would frequently be swapped to the hard disk and can be easily done with BIOSes that allow booting from the D drive.

To change the swap file settings, open Control Panel > System > Performance and click Virtual Memory. Choose 'Let me specify my own virtual memory settings' and select the drive for the swap file. Note that no matter what partition you boot from, it will always appear as the C drive from DOS and Windows 98, and the first partition that is recognized as C by the BIOS will be assigned a higher drive letter. Set the minimum and maximum size for the swap file. Both these numbers should be identical to set a permanent (non-variable) swap file. Ideally, it should be two-and-a-half times the amount of RAM on your system, but if you have a separate partition for it, you may not want it to be less than 512 MB-if it is lower, it will have to be a FAT16 partition, not FAT32.

Wednesday, January 14, 2009

Concept of Thrashing

If the number of frames allocated to a low priority process is lower than the minimum number required by the computer architecture then in this case we must suspend the execution of this low priority process.After this we should page out all of its remaining pages and freeing all of its allocated frames.This provision introduces a swap in,swap-out level of intermediate CPU scheduling.Let take a example of a process that does not have enough number of frames.If the process does not have the number of frames it needs to support pages in active use, it will quickly page fault.The oly option remains here for process is to replace some active pages with the page that requires a frame.However,since all of its pages are in active use,it must replace a page that will be needed again right away.Consequently,it quickly faults again and again that mean replacing pages that it must bring back in immediately.This high paging activity is called Thrashing.Or we can say that a process is Thrashing if it is spending more time in paging then executing.Thrashing results in severe performance problems.